Introduction to Command History
In Linux and Unix-like operating systems, the concept of "history" refers to the
list of commands that a user has previously executed in the terminal. These
commands are typically stored in a history file (like
.bash_history for the
Bash shell), allowing users to easily refer back to, search through, or even
rerun past commands. The history feature is incredibly useful for repeating
complex commands, tracking your actions, and identifying errors.
In addition to merely storing commands, most modern shells provide advanced features like history expansion, search, and manipulation, which make working with the command-line more efficient.
What is History Expansion?
History expansion is a feature that allows users to refer to previous commands using special notations. It enables users to easily recall, edit, and rerun past commands, making the command line experience more productive and user-friendly. Bash, Zsh, and many other popular shells offer robust history expansion capabilities.
In essence, history expansion is like an advanced version of copy-pasting previous commands, but with far more flexibility and power. It allows for complex operations like selecting only specific arguments from past commands or running a sequence of commands from history in one go.
How History Expansion Works in Linux
When you enter a special character (usually
! (exclamation mark)), followed by
certain qualifiers, the shell attempts to search for a matching command in the
history list and replace the expression with the corresponding command. This
process happens before the command is executed, allowing you to verify or edit
the command if you enable the shell option for it.
History Expansion Commands
History expansion commands allow you to reuse and manipulate previously executed commands in a variety of ways. They can save you a lot of typing and make your command-line experience more efficient. Below is a table detailing various history expansion commands and their descriptions:
|History Expansion Command||Description|
|Re-executes the last command.|
|Executes the n-th command from the history list.|
|Executes the command n positions back from the current one.|
|Executes the most recent command that starts with "string".|
|Executes the most recent command that contains "string".|
|Executes the last command, replacing "string1" with "string2".|
|Refers to the first word of the most recently executed command (usually the command name itself).|
|Refers to the N-th argument of the last command.|
|Refers to all arguments of the last command except the command itself.|
|Equivalent to |
|Refers to the first argument of the last command.|
|Refers to the last argument of the previous command.|
|Refers to the arguments from the first to the N-th of the last command.|
|Refers to the arguments from the m-th to the n-th of the last command.|
|Refers to all the words from the last command except for the zeroth word (the command).|
Important Notations and Qualifiers
!!: Repeats the last command.
!n: Repeats the nth command in the history list.
!-n: Repeats the command that is
nsteps back in the history.
!?string?: Repeats the most recent command that contains
Enabling and Disabling History Expansion
In the Bash shell, you can enable history expansion by setting the
option with the
To disable history expansion, you can unset it:
Examples of History Expansion
Let's explore some examples to understand how history expansion can be useful.
Repeating the Last Command
You can use
!!to repeat the last command. For example:
$ echo "hello"
Executing a Specific Command from History
If the 10th command in your history list is
ls -l, you can rerun it by using:
Executing a Command a Few Steps Back
To run a command that is 3 steps back in your history list, use:
Searching for a Command in History
To run the latest command that included the string "make", you can type:
Using Only Arguments from Previous Command
Assume the last command was
cp file1.txt file2.txt. To delete
file1.txt, you can use:
$ rm !!:1
This will expand to
Combining History Expansion and Alias Expansion
If you have an alias like
alias ll='ls -l', you can use history and alias expansion together:
This will expand to
ll, which further expands to
Limitations and Caveats
History File: Not all commands may be stored in the history file, especially if you have configured it to ignore duplicates or specific commands.
Security: Commands like those involving passwords should not be run using history expansion, as they could be saved in plain text in the history file.
Syntax: The syntax for history expansion can be quite nuanced, and incorrect usage can sometimes lead to unexpected results.
History expansion in Linux is a powerful feature that complements the basic history functionality provided by the shell. It allows you to manipulate and utilize your command history in a more dynamic and effective manner. Whether you're looking to rerun the last command, execute a specific command from your history list, or even manipulate parts of previous commands, history expansion has got you covered. Understanding this feature can significantly enhance your productivity on the command line.
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